EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Advanced Therapeutics and Nanomedicines

University of Nottingham
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Raphael Egbu

CDT student, UCL School of Pharmacy


raphael egbu

Raphael graduated with an MPharm degree from the University of East Anglia in 2015.  During this period he completed a three month summer placement in pharmaceutical development at AstraZeneca.  For his dissertation, he worked on encapsulating docetaxel anticancer agent in liposomal nanoformulations.  He then completed his pre-registration training at Cambridge University Hospitals and GlaxoSmithKline where he worked on Oral Solid Dosage formulation, before joining the CDT.  Raphael is a practicing GPhC registered pharmacist.

Current Research

PhD Project Title: Affinity-based subcutaneous formulation development

Supervisor: Prof Steve Brocchini

Project description: Polypeptides and proteins have become a major potent class of clinically used therapy and now constitute a large number of newly approved drugs. However, issues such as sub-optimal pharmacokinetics and aggregation pose development challenges. Formulation approaches can address some of the challenges associated with polypeptide and protein use.

Due to decreased treatment costs and increased patient preference for subcutaneous (SC) administration over intravenous formulations there is considerable interest in the development of delivery systems that can i) stabilise the drugs for therapeutic use and ii) provide sustained drug release with the aim of reducing dosage regimen and improving adherence.

Several SC peptide formulation are based on the clinically established poly((lactic-co-glycolic acid). However, these formulations present with problems such as local inflammatory reactions, use of non-aqueous solvent and difficulty to achieving high loading with desired release profile. This PhD aims to develop a SC delivery system which is able to sustain polypeptide release by exploiting affinity between the polypeptide and the delivery system.


Egbu R, Brocchini S, Khaw P, Awwad S (2018) Antibody loaded collapsible hyaluronic acid hydrogels for intraocular delivery, Eur J Pharm Biopharm; 124, 95-103 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2017.12.019.

Egbu R, Davies C, Dawson N, Coupe A (2018) Linking API brittleness in high load formulations to the roller compaction process, Powder Technology; 328, 337-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2018.01.023


EPSRC Centres for Doctoral Training in Advanced Therapeutics and Nanomedicines


The University of Nottingham
School of Pharmacy
Boots Science Building
University of Nottingham,
Nottingham, NG7 2RD
t: +44(0)115 823 2121
e: Claudia.Matz@nottingham.ac.uk

University College London
School of Pharmacy
University College London
29-39 Brunswick Square,
London WC1N 1AX.
t: +44 (0) 20 7753 5948
e: s.marks.pharm@ucl.ac.uk